Throughout history, mankind has feared comets, and perhaps rightfully so. The Egyptian record shows that our civilizations have been ravaged by comet impacts and volcanic eruptions throughout the centuries. Contained herein is an initial list of such catastrophes between 3200 BC and 550 AD. Data has been extracted from thee records and from petroglyphs that put a human face on the scope and magnitude of these catastrophes. This data is presented for the world to see what the past has to offer and imagine what the future contains.
A Catastrophe in prehistory is a very strange subject. I shall attempt to explain it in this way. The whole (Egyptian) prehistory is a constant hymne to the KING, who is able to control everything: the State, his People, the Enemies, the Economy, the Art, etc. Then, suddenly, a Catastrophe occurs. Everybody is surprised that the KING is not able to destroy, remove, or whatever, the Catastrophe. It turns out the Catastrophe is more powerful than the KING. So, everybody is silent, and everybody waits till it is all over. Then people start again all the hymnes about the power of the KING, etc.So, the result is that there is hardly any information about all these Catastrophes. It is very hard to get data. If there are stories about Catastrophes, these are so- called "Lamentations" without any information about what really happened. It simply is a very strange subject! The geographic knowledge of the Ancients is much better than we generally believe. Australia was discovered in the 3rd Dynasty. America was discovered in the 4th Dynasty, the Atlantic Ocean was crossed in the 5th Dynasty, the last territories on Earth were discovered in the 11th Dynasty (Hawaii and Antarctica). Usually there is some information about the Catastrophe that occurred during the reign of the king. These Catastrophes are so big, that people had to mention these, because of the huge impact on society. So, when studying the notes, small indications are visible that point to these Disasters. Monuments and petroglyphs are more serious "documents" for information about duration and casualties of Catastrophes. However, the subject remains difficult to analyze. The following is an example of a petroglyph that depicts a comet catastrophe.
A detailed list of these Catastrophes can be found in Table 1.
|3201 BCc, WCC||Pre-Dynastic||70 days||forest-fires, rains, floodings, cold||3000 Egypt - 7.5% WP*||Casualties were only counted in Egypt|
|3006 BCc, WCC||
5th king Den-Udimu
|11 days||rains, floodings||2600 Egypt - 2.6% WP*||Only Egyptian casualties.|
|2742 BCc, WVC||
3 rd Dynasty|
2nd king Djoser
|7 years of famine||dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||c. 9,000 Egyptian - 4.3% WP*||Ibusuki Volcanic Field, Kyushu, Japan. Cotopaxi Volcano, Equador/Volcano Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion, western Indian Ocean. Only Egyptian casualties.|
|2344 BCc WCC||
1st king Teti
|2+2= 4 months||forest-fires, torrential rains, floodings, cold||c.2.6 million - 54% WP*(4.8 million)||Ended 5th Dynasty, later also Old Kingdom; ended all civilizations on Earth. Ogyges Flood - Precipitation of c.8.5 meters of water. Low temperatures and drought for 3 centuries followed.|
|2020 BCc, WVC||
5th king Mentuhotep II
|4 years famine||dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||c.90,000, 2.6% WP* (3.5 million)||Volcano of Long Island, NE of New Guinea / Volcano of Changbaishan, Eastern China / Volcano of Liamuiga, West Indies|
|1899 BCc, WCC||
4th king Sesostris II
|11 days||forest-fires, rains, and floodings||c.260,000 6.2% WP* (4.2 million)||-|
(ended 14th Dynasty)
|9-10 days||forest-fires, rains, floodings||c.510,000 - 9.1% WP*(5.6 million)||
Low temperatures and drought for at least a century.
9th king Amenhotep III
50 days dimming of Sun|
2 years dust in the air
7 years of famine
|three phases, dimming Sun, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||c.950,000 - 7.9% WP(12 million)*||Santorini Volcano on Thera (Greece). Pago Volcano, New Britain Island|
|1159 BCab, WCC||
King Ramses III
|40+40 = 80 days||forest-fires, torrential rains, floodings, cold||c.5.8 million - 32% WP(18 million)*||Dardanus Flood, 35 years after Comet of 1194 BC, 3.8 million victims (21%), and 2.0 million victims (11%) of system collapse. Precipitation of 5.5 m of water. Ended New Kingdom and other civilizations. Period of chaos and cold weather for 4 centuries.|
|430 BCab, WCC/WVC||
king Artaxerxes I
|13 days||forest fires, rains, and floodings||c.830,000, - 2.4% WP*(35 million)||-|
|207 BCab, WCC||Ptolemy IV Philopator||8 days||forest-fires, rains, floodings||c.530,000, - 1.4% WP*(38 million)||-|
|44 BCab WCC or DC.||Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy Caesarion||(2 months) 7 days, 2 years||forest-fires, dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||c.500,000, 1.3%, WP*(40 million)||Caesar’s Comet, 2 months after perihelion. 15 years of cold weather and chaos (wars) followed.|
|235 ADab, WVC or DC||Emperor Maximinus||45 days, 1 year of famine||dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||280,000 0.61% WP*(46 million)||Taupo Volcano, North Island, New Zealand|
|416 ADb, WVC||Emperor Maximus||12 months||dust, cold, drought, crop failure, famine||250,000, 0.5%, WP*(50 million)||Eruption of Krakatau. Separation of islands of Java and Sumatra, Indonesia.|
|536/540 ADb WCC||Dark Ages Begin||3 months severe dust, 18 months dust||sunlight dimmed, dust, drought, cold, crop failure, famine||
2.9 million 5.5% WP*(53 million)|
Over (536-544 AD)
|Two-stage event 5 and 9 years after Comet of 531 AD. 25% of people migrated to rivers. In 540 AD also eruption of Rabaul Volcano, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea, c.120.000 victims (included). A century of cold and dry weather followed.|
THE COMET CATASTROPHE OF c.2345 BC - 2: February 14, 2009
(The Kermorvan menhir, Brittany, France)
The menhir of Kermorvan and the comet grave of Mougau-Bihan were built on exactly the same latitude line in Brittany, France. The menhir of Kermorvan at Le Conquet, on the western tip of the peninsula, has a rare petroglyph of the giant Comet, which caused the Catastrophe of c.2345 BC. It shows that the planet Earth passed through the tail of this Comet (or Comet Swarm) during two months, and that the whole Catastrophe lasted for four months. A precipitation of about seven meters of water during these days caused terrible floodings, in which about half of the people died. It happened at the start of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt (c.2370-2189 BC), which leaded to the end of the Old Kingdom.
THE COMET CATASTROPHE OF c.2345 BC - 3: February 18, 2009
(The Tresse Grave, Brittany, France)
The comet graves of Tresse and Mougau-Bihan, and the menhir of Kermorvan were built on exactly the same latitude line in Brittany, France. The menhir of Kermorvan, on the western tip of the peninsula, has the rare petroglyph of the giant Comet which caused the Catastrophe of c.2345 BC. However, the grave of Tresse at Combourg, in the east of Brittany, shows that the whole Catastrophe lasted for four months. Several high menhirs in North Brittany show, that aprecipitation of seven to nine meters of water during these days caused terrible floodings, in which more than half of the world population perished. It happened at the start of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt (c.2370-2189 BC), after which all ancient civilizations on Earth disappeared.
THE COMET CATASTROPHE OF c.2345 BC - 4: April 6, 2009
(Kerlescan, Carnac, Brittany, France)
The megalithic monument of Kerlescan has a length of half a kilometer. It consists of a fan of thirteen stone rows, a U-shaped stone circle, and an oblong burial mound. It has a total of about 315 stones, having an average height ofc.2 meters. The monument has a religious meaning, which is expressed as a voyage to the Realm of the Dead (Central America), where the King will appear. However, as usual in such great monuments, some other important stories are encoded as well. One of these is the Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC at the start of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, which ended the Old Kingdom. It lasted for four months, and more than half of the world population perished (2.6 million men). It still is the strongest Catastrophe in 5,000 years of Human History.
THE COMET CATASTROPHE OF c.2345 BC - 5: November 16, 2009
(Ita Letra, Villarrica, Paraguay)
The archaeological site of Ita Letra in Paraguay is located at 26oS. Its geographic position encodes the important stories of the Egyptian discovery of America and the Comet Catastrophe, just after it. America was discovered from the west in the 4th Dynasty, and reached from the east in the 5th Dynasty. At the start of the 6th Dynasty the planet Earth passed through the Tail of a hugh Comet (or Comet Swarm). The two branches of the Parana River illustrate its shape. The whole rain-forest went up in flames. The local width of the continent of 2 Moiras encodes the duration of the event of 2 months, as well as the time period of 2 months after it. The meridian has a length of 4 Moiras in South America, confirming the 2+2= 4 months of the Catastrophe. This meridian hits Newfoundland at 48oN, corresponding to the initial world population of 4.8 million men. The latitude of Ita Letra encodes the number of casualties: 2.6 million men (54%). The precipitation during the Flood was nine meters of water. The Catastrophe ended all ancient civilizations on Earth.
THE COMET CATASTROPHE OF c.2345 BC - 6: February 16, 2010
(Mt. Borradaile, Arnhem Land, N.T., Australia)
The Rainbow Serpent Shelter of Mount Borradaile in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, has a beautiful painting of a Serpent, symbolizing the Egyptian god Maat. A Second Painting shows the discovery of Australia by the 2nd king Djoser of the Third Dynasty (c.2753-2723 BC). However, it also shows the cosmic collision of the planet Earth with the tail of a huge Comet. Two closely spaced lines show the duration of 2 months inside the tail. Two lines at the edge show the 2 months after it. More than half of the people on Earth perished. There were 2.6 million casualties worldwide, and 2.2 million survivors. Most of them were seriously injured. The precipitation during the Flood was 9 meters of water. The Comet Catastrophe happened during the reign of the 1st king Teti of the Sixth Dynasty. All numerical details are confirmed by the geographic position of Mt. Borradaile, especially by its latitude and by the meridian of the site. The Flood ended all civilizations on Earth, including the Old Kingdom.
THE BRANDENBURG STONE: April 1, 2010
Comet Catastrophe of 536/540 AD
(560 AD, Battletown, Meade County, Kentucky)
The Brandenburg Stone is a memorial stone of national significance for the 220 thousand victims in North America of the Comet Catastrophe of 536/540 AD. The Comet already exploded near the Sun in 531. Two parts of the debris reached the Earth several years later. The whole event resembled the previous Krakatau Catastrophe, of 416, as well as the probably simultaneous eruption of Rabaul Volcano, in 540. The climate in America was seriously disrupted for more than one and a half years (18 months). Daylight was strongly dimmed, it did not rain anymore, and it was bitterly cold. Most casualties occurred within a time period of nine years. A quarter of the original population of 4.0 million men in North America migrated to the Rivers for food and fresh water, in order to survive. The Stone was carved in 560 AD, 24 years after the start of the Catastrophe. The petroglyph contains an ancient Welsh script called Coelbren, which is deciphered by two British researchers, Wilson and Blackett. It turns out to be an important Christian prayer.- The petroglyph shows there were 2.9 million casualties worldwide (5.5%). This number includes the c.120 thousand victims of the eruption of Rabaul Volcano.
The Stone also gives excellent descriptions of the Biblical Flood, the Dardanus Flood, Caesar’s Comet, and the eruption of the Krakatau Volcano. - The Biblical Flood of 2344 BC was a two-stage event, which lasted for 2 + 2 = 4 months. There were 2.6 million casualties (54%), and 2.2 million survivors. The precipitation was 9 m of water. It was the start of a time period of more than three centuries of chaos, until the Twelfth Dynasty.- The Dardanus Flood of 1159 BC was also a two-stage event, which happened 35 years after the appearance of the Comet. It lasted for 40 + 40 = 80 days. There were 3.8 million casualties (21%), and 2.0 million victims because of system collapse (11%). So, in total there were 5.8 million casualties (32%). There were 12 million survivors. The precipitation was 5.5 m of water. It was the start of a time period of four centuries of chaos. - The disaster caused by Caesar’s Comet in 44 BC happened two months after perihelion. It resembled a volcano catastrophe, and lasted for two years. There were 500 thousand casualties (1.3%).- The Krakatau Catastrophe of 416 AD lasted for one year. There were 250 thousand casualties, worldwide (0.5%). - The carving predicts a possible Comet Catastrophe in the year of c.2256.
ABOUT THE BRANDENBURG STONE: May 3, 2010
Comet Catastrophe of 536/540 AD
(560 AD, Battletown, Meade County, Kentucky)
The Brandenburg Stone shows a single Comet is responsible for the Biblical Flood, the Dardanus Flood, the Calamity of Caesar’s Comet, and the Catastrophe of 536/540 AD. This historical Comet has a periodicity of 575 years, as confirmed by Sir Isaac Newton in the 17th Century. Around the future dates of 2256 and 2831 in the present Third Millennium Comet Catastrophes may be expected with hundreds of millions of casualties on Earth.
GOLD RING: May 15, 2010
(c.1450 BC, Grand Canyon, Arizona)
In 2010 a Gold Ring was found in Arizona. The markings on the Ring tell the story of the Egyptian discovery of America and the Biblical Flood of c.2344 BC. The discovery of America occurred in the Fourth Dynasty via the Bering Sea. All Atlantic Crossings were discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. The Flood was caused by a worldwide Comet Catastrophe in the Sixth Dynasty. It lasted for four months. 2.6 million people perished, which was 54% of the world population. The Ring dates from the 18th Dynasty.
THE IKOM MONOLITHS AND THE FLOOD: May 16, 2010
(1200 BC-200 AD, Cross River State, Nigeria)
The Ikom Monoliths in SE Nigeria are an important group of c.350 beautifully decorated menhirs, most of them situated in about thirty stone circles. Mainly based on their decoration these are dated to the Iron Age. The stones are located just above the Cross River, at 6oN. It appears, that this River symbolizes the Biblical Flood of c.2344 BC, which happened in the 6th Dynasty. The relation with this Comet Catastrophe is obvious from many geographic features of the site. The Flood lasted for 2 + 2 = 4 months. There were 2.6 million casualties worldwide, and 2.2 million survivors, most of them seriously injured. The total precipitation was about 9 meters of water.
GREAT SERPENT MOUND: July 12, 2010
(c.2300 BC, Adams County, Ohio)
Serpent Mound is an earthwork of a snake seizing a huge egg. It dates from a time period without any written records. For that reason it represents one or more stories. It is shown, that it tells the well-known story of the Egyptian discovery of America and the Biblical Flood. In c.1100 BC the monument was updated by placing a heap of stones in the center of the egg. With this new feature the monument also tells the story of the metal trade and the Dardanus Flood. Serpent Mound is one of the most important monuments of North America. It is part of our worldwide cultural heritage.
PETERS CREEK MOUND - December 31, 2010
(c.715 BC, Clairton, Pennsylvania)
In 1890 Peters Creek Mound was ‘excavated’ by amateurs in a single day. It contained two ‘skeletons’, two large copper plates and a number of other beautiful artifacts. It turns out the Mound tells two important stories. The first story deals with the copper trade from Upper Michigan across the Ocean to Europe, which lasted from the Fifth to the Twentieth Dynasty (2500-1200 BC). 60% of the copper was shipped along the Mississippi to the south, and 40% was brought via the St. Lawrence River to the east. A total of 24 million copper ingots were exported, including 2.4 million tin ingots (10%) from Bolivia. The second story deals with the Dardanus Flood in the Twentieth Dynasty. It was caused by a Comet Catastrophe, which lasted 40+40= 80 days. 3.8 million people perished, including 2.0 million men due to the chaos after it (32% of the world population). The total precipitation was c.5.5 meters of water. It happened during the reign of the 2nd king Ramses III (c.1159 BC). Peters Creek Mound was built at the end of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty.
THE SWAN STONE - July 6, 2011
(Burrows Cave, near Olney, Illinois)
The Swan Stone from Burrows Cave, Illinois, bears a petroglyph of a serpent with a large head in the shape of the wing of a bird. It tells the famous story of the discovery of the sailing routes across the Atlantic during the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Finally, after a long struggle of several millennia people were able to reach the back side of the planet Earth. However, immediately after this success was a Comet Catastrophe which resulted in the Biblical Flood (c.2344 BC). Because of a precipitation of nine meters of water within a time period of four months more than half of the world population perished (2.6 million men). It resulted in the end of all ancient civilizations on Earth, including the Old Kingdom itself.
SENTINEL ROCK, VERMONT - November 5, 2011
(Discovery of America and Biblical Flood, c.1900 BC)
Sentinel Rock is located in Westmore, northern Vermont. It is a big ‘glacial boulder’, which turns out to be a monument of the Megalithic Culture of New England. It tells the well-kown story of the discovery of America in the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties of Egypt (c.2500 BC). It bears a large petroglyph of a Comet, and it turns out to be situated close to an ancient crater having a diameter of 17 km. So, it also tells the story of the Biblical Flood, which occurred at the start of the Sixth Dynasty (c.2344 BC). It was caused by a Comet Catastrophe, at which more than half of the world population perished (2.6 million men). Nearby Lake Willoughby symbolizes this Comet. The monument dates from the Twelfth Dynasty (Middle Kingdom), c.1900 BC.
BIBLICAL and DARDANUS FLOOD - May 18, 2012
(Reykjavik, Iceland, c.770 BC)
Three Russian ladies of the Institute of Universal Knowledge discovered ten megalithic sites on Iceland. One of these in Reykjavic consists of three huge boulders placed at the corners of a triangle. This monument tells three different stories. The first one deals with the discovery of the Northern Crossing of the Ocean by the 3rd king Nefererkare of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. The second one deals with the subsequent Biblical Flood at the start of the Sixth Dynasty, at which 2.6 million people perished (54% of the world population). The third one deals with the Dardanus Flood during the reign of the 2nd king Ramses III in the 20th Dynasty. It was caused by the same Comet: 3.8 million people died, and another 2.0 million people expired due to system collapse (32% of the world population). The monument was erected in Dynasty 23.
OIL CITY GLYPHS - June 16, 2012
(Pennsylvania, c.2000 BC)
Carvings on a Stone a few miles east of Oil City, Pa, tell the ancient story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. America was discovered via the Bering Sea in the Fourth Dynasty. All the Atlantic crossings were discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. However, in the Sixth Dynasty a worldwide Comet Catastrophe happened which caused the Biblical Flood. More than half of the world population perished: 2.6 million men (54%). The precipitation was 9 meters of water. The glyphs give an excellent description of the duration of the Disaster. It lasted slightly less than 2 + 2 = 4 months, in reality 110 days. The glyphs also provide an accurate value of the periodicity of the Comet: 575 years. The Comet Catastrophe ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, including the Old Kingdom. – The carvings date from the start of the Twelfth Dynasty (Middle Kingdom).
V-SHAPED GLYPH - June 19, 2012
(Oil City, Pennsylvania, c.2000 BC)
A V-shaped carving on a Stone a few miles east of Oil City, Pa, tells the story of the Biblical Flood, which happened in the Sixth Dynasty. More than half of the world population perished: 2.6 million men (54%). It lasted slightly less than 2 + 2 = 4 months, in reality 110 days. The precipitation was 9 meters of water. Finally, the glyph provides the periodicity of the Comet, 575 years.
MEGALITHS OF ARROWHEAD REGION I - July 4, 2012
(Minnesota, c.1900 BC)
Big Cubes of stone in the Arrowhead Region of NE Minnesota tell the story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. America was discovered via the Bering Sea in the Fourth Dynasty. All the Atlantic Crossings were discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. However, the huge Magnetic Rock (a Menhir), having a height of 9 meters, is a testimony of the worldwide Comet Catastrophe, which happened at the start of the Sixth Dynasty. More than half of the world population perished: 2.6 million men (54%). It lasted for 2 + 2 = 4 months. The precipitation was 9 meters of water. The periodicity of the Comet appears to be 575 years. The Biblical Flood ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, including the Old Kingdom. The megaliths date from the Twelfth Dynasty (Middle Kingdom).
MEGALITHS OF ARROWHEAD REGION II - July 4, 2012
(Minnesota, c.1900 BC and c.770 BC)
The ancient Copper Culture of Isle Royale built a Dolmen and left behind a pair of recumbent Rocks. Mr. Bruns of Duluth identified both sites as man-made. The Little Bear Dolmen tells the story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. America was discovered via the Bering Sea in the Fourth Dynasty. All the Atlantic Crossings were discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. – The Two Rocks tell the story of the Dardanus Flood, which was caused by a worldwide Comet Catastrophe at which 6 million people died (32%). It happened during the reign of the 2nd king Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty. It lasted 40 + 40 = 80 days. The precipitation was c.5.5 meters of water. It ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, including the New Kingdom. However, the monument also tells the story of the metal trade until this Disaster: 384,000 tons of copper from Upper Michigan, 38,400 tons of tin, 18 tons of silver, and 38 tons of gold from Bolivia, and 10 tons of gold from Brazil were shipped to the Old World.
GRAVE CREEK MOUND - July 26, 2012
(c.720 BC, Moundville, Marshall County, WV)
Grave Creek Mound on the Ohio River, at 40oN, tells both the story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom, and the metal trade during the Empire of Atlantis (2500-1200 BC).43 However, it also tells the account of the Dardanus Flood during the reign of the 2nd king Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty. It was caused by a Comet Catastrophe, and it lasted 40 + 40 = 80 days. 6 million people perished (32%). The precipitation was 5.5 meters of water. Four centuries of cold and dry weather followed. The Grave Creek Tablet is engraved with Punic script from SW Iberia. It provides an accurate date of the Mound: the 24th Dynasty of Egypt (c.727-715 BC). It confirms the metal trade across the Ocean during the Empire of Atlantis.
Table 1, shown above, contains a survey of data of a number of Worldwide Catastrophes between 3200 BC and 550 AD. The Table consists of preliminary results from a limited number of sources. These results are not yet published in the literature. It appears, that there are two types of Worldwide Catastrophes: the Comet Catastrophes and the Volcanic Catastrophes. The first type is the most dangerous one. In the considered time period there were two Catastrophes with more than 10% casualties, and both were Comet Catastrophes (2344 BC and 1159 BC).
The Table is representative for the subject, but it may slowly change over time. It is likely, that some details will change as more sources will be studied. Probably, some new Worldwide Catastrophes will be discovered in the near future, most of them in the lower percentage range of casualties. So-called "Floods" can easily be identified as Comet Catastrophes, but the cause of worldwide droughts and crop failure is sometimes uncertain. Some Volcanic Catastrophes are positively identified, but sometimes the role of a "Dry Comet" cannot be excluded.
The present world population is about 7 billion men. In our opinion there is a urgent need for more research in this field. An important goal is to get similar data for the time period from 550 AD to the present time, 2009 AD. Another goal is to improve Table 1 with the aid of short scientific articles, especially about the astronomic Catastrophes. The first three articles, mentioned above, show the first prehistoric petroglyphs of Comets ever witnessed by man. These articles support the content of the Table for the Comet Catastrophe of 2344 BC.
An entire "Comet Research Programme" was carried out in Northern Brittany, France, just after the 2344 BC Comet Catastrophe People determined the periodicity of some five comets of the Jupiter family.
The most important monuments are at a latitude of 48oN, because of the initial World Population of 4.8 million men. The RELATIVE LATITUDE determines the number of casualties:(48/90)x4.8= 2.6 million men. So, the number of survivors equals 4.8 - 2.6= 2.2 million men.It is that simple! ("Latitudes" were already used c.4700 BC).
1. Dr. Reinoud de Jonge - De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod
Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-
2. Monuments and Petroglyphs all over the World (Archaeology)